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30 Logical Fallacies— Launches Study Starters for Students by Tackling Learning’s Greatest Threat

Logical fallacies, image of thought bubbles

Do you know a Masked-man Fallacy from a Tu Quoque? Sharpen your logical thinking skills at AcademicInfluence by understanding these 30 common logical fallacies…

FORT WORTH, TEXAS, UNITED STATES, August 25, 2021 / -- Newsflash: someone is wrong on the Internet.

How can you make sure it’s not you? You must first understand logical fallacies, those flaws in reasoning that dominate social media posts, news site commentary, political speech, and much of what passes for “insight” in civil discourse, both in person and on the Internet.

Students, writers, researchers, politicians, and just about everyone who shows up at Thanksgiving dinner benefits from knowing what logical fallacies are, how to avoid making them, and how to respond when others stumble into them.

Inflection, the opinion, editorial, and news analysis journal of, unpacks the 30 most commonly encountered errors in logic in the first entry of its Study Starters series:

30 Common Logical Fallacies–A Study Starter

“We can all agree that the current level of discourse could be much improved if we were all a little more focused on thinking correctly,” says Dr. Jed Macosko, academic director of and professor of physics at Wake Forest University. ”But even the smartest thinkers sometimes overlook errors in logical reasoning. No one is immune to committing mistakes in logic. It’s why we think this Study Starter in logical fallacies is so essential and why we’ve chosen this subject to lead off our series.”

Study Starters from serve as a resource for anyone—students, especially—to dive into a topic and be quickly immersed in its core ideas and concepts. The logical fallacies Study Starter examines what constitutes a logical fallacy, why addressing fallacies matters, and identifies these 30 commonly encountered informal and formal fallacies:
• Ad Hominem
• Affirming the Consequent
• Affirming the Disjunct
• Appeal to Authority
• Appeal to Ignorance
• Appeal to Pity
• Appeal to Popular Opinion
• Appeal to Probability
• Appeal to the Stone
• Argument from Fallacy
• Causal Fallacy
• Circular Argument
• Conjunction Fallacy
• Denying a Conjunct
• Denying the Antecedent
• Equivocation
• Existential Fallacy
• Fallacy of Sunk Costs
• Fallacy of the Undistributed Middle
• False Dilemma
• Genetic Fallacy
• Hasty Generalization
• Loaded Question Fallacy
• Masked-man Fallacy
• Non-Sequitur Fallacy
• Post Hoc Fallacy
• Red Herring Fallacy
• Slippery Slope Fallacy
• Strawman Argument
• Tu Quoque

Each fallacy entry includes an overview of the fallacy, its meaning, multiple examples of the fallacy in use, reasons for its status as fallacious, how to counter its flawed reasoning, and a Fun Fact about that fallacy. Some fallacies also feature a video demonstrating the fallacy “in action.”

Additional Study Starters releasing soon will spotlight
• 25 Forms of Government,
• 20 Wars That Shaped the Modern World,
• 25 Most Influential Psychologists in History, and
• 25 Most Influential Philosophers of All Time,
with more to follow.

“ is about equipping learners with the resources they need to advance their educational goals,” says Macosko. “We can’t think of a better start than guides to important topics every student should know, along with ways to use that information to write research papers with logically solid outlines and flow. We believe everyone needs to learn how to think logically. This is a critical foundation for building knowledge, gaining wisdom, and attempting to make sense of a complex world.”

For additional student resources, visit where you’ll find Custom College Rankings, College Admissions Consultants Directory, Desirability Index, College Strategist, interviews with subject matter experts, and a host of other enlightening educational tools, resources, and articles. For more information on why logic is essential to success, see 5 Reasons You Should Take Logic Your First Year in College. is the preeminent technology-driven academic rankings site dedicated to students, researchers, and inquirers from high school through college and beyond, offering resources that connect learners to leaders. (Visit the About page for further details on the capabilities and advantages of this unique ranking technology and on the people who make it possible.) is a part of the EducationAccess group, a family of sites dedicated to lifelong learning and personal growth.

Jed Macosko, Ph.D.
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