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Science is standing on shaky mathematical pillars, which guarantees a scientific revolution

Correct representation of Negative and Imaginary Numbers

Correct representation of Negative and Imaginary Numbers

For measuring curvature of 3D (hyper) surface we need solid angles instead of plane angles.

For measuring curvature of 3D (hyper) surface we need solid angles instead of plane angles.

Hundreds of billions of dollars are wasted in searching for non-existant Dark Matter particles and SuperSymmetrical particles

Hundreds of billions of dollars are wasted in searching for non-existant Dark Matter particles and SuperSymmetrical particles

Correcting the faulty mathematical assumptions makes a scientific ‘paradigm shift’ imminent.

Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.”
— Gautama Buddha
INDORE, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA, February 20, 2023 / -- Science is standing on faulty mathematical assumptions, which has led to present crises in Cosmology and Physics. Luckily, the mistakes are so easy to comprehend that even the common people can easily understand what is wrong. A baker can understand, and so can a butcher or a cobbler. But why should the general public care?

Public should care because hundreds of billions of dollars of taxpayers money is wasted chasing for non-existent Dark Matter particles and SuperSymmetrical particles. For the last four decades every such hunt has returned empty handed. Those astronomical sums of money could feed the hungry and provide shelter to the homeless. Or at least it could be funding fruitful research in physics and cosmology. And at the root of such wastage is mathematical fallacies which has turned the two greatest theories of physics (General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics) incompatible and mutually conflicting. This in turn led to String theory, SuperSymmetry theory etc. (which resulted from forceful marriage of General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics). Also, Dark Matter, Dark Energy etc. are mere relics of misunderstanding of General Relativity. Scientists failed to realize that two different viewpoints (frames of references) are involved in relativity and Quantum Mechanics, and both cannot be unified into a single viewpoint. So what are the mathematical mistakes?

Suppose Mr. X have taken one thousand dollars from the bank and spent it somewhere. Then one can either say “Mr. X is in a debt of 1000 dollars”, or else one should say “Mr. X owns -1000 dollars”. But one must never say “Mr. X is in a debt of -1000 dollars”. That would simply mean that Mr. X owns 1000 dollars.

What would happen if a bank made that mistake? Suppose Mrs. Z takes a loan of ten thousand dollars from the bank, but an amount of ten thousand dollars is credited to her account! Excited and encouraged, she returns the next day and takes a loan of a million dollars. She finds an equivalent amount credited to her account. How long can such a bank stay in business? What would happen if such a computer virus infects the banking system servers, and all banks starts making that mistake? The banking sector will collapse. What will happen if that virus invades the stock market servers? There will be mayhem from Wall Street to Dalal Street.

Therefore, if negative numbers are used (i.e. along with the minus sign), then one should use the positive x-axis (i.e. in the same direction of positive numbers) from the chosen origin. If the minus sign is not used, then one should use the negative x-axis (in the opposite direction of positive x-axis). But one should never use both together.

Similar argument applies for imaginary numbers. While mathematicians had correctly identified that i (square root of -1) represent 90 degree rotation [ #Link1 ], scientists failed to realize that if one explicitly use a perpendicular axis (additional dimension), then imaginary sign (i) must go away. One should then only use real numbers on the y-axis. The imaginary sign (i) can stay only as long as one do not use an additional axis. This means that when imaginary sign (i) is present, then no additional dimension has been created. The Argand diagram for imaginary numbers (i.e. real numbers taken on x-axis, and imaginary numbers taken on perpendicular y-axis) which is taught in schools around the world, is wrong!

Negative numbers and Imaginary numbers are ubiquitous in Science, so these corrections have profound implications. Of particular interest is what happens to the concept of SpaceTime. One must remember that SpaceTime is the arena in which everything happens. Scientists failed to understand what SpaceTime really is:

“What is SpaceTime? The shocking answer can rewrite Physics and Cosmology” [ #Link2 ]

There is another faulty mathematical assumption, which has led scientists to believe in a 3D flat universe. One cannot measure the curvature of a 3 dimensional (hyper) surface using summation of angles in a triangle. That works for a 2 dimensional surface curving in the 3rd dimension. But for this case, one needs the sum of solid angles (i.e. a tetrahedron is needed, and not a triangle). The ‘sum of angles of the triangle’ checkup which scientists had applied to CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) spots is bound to show that the universe is (3D) flat!

This point can be elaborated by going down one dimension and taking the curved surface of the earth as an example. Let Mr. Y starts from point A on the North Pole, move southwards till point B on the equator. Then he moves an equal distance along the equator to reach point C. Now he turns 90°, and faces the North direction. He continues his journey and reaches point A. Now each of the angles, at A, B and C are 90°. Therefore the total angles in the triangle add up to 270°.

Now he repeats his journey from point A (North Pole) and again reaches point B on the equator. But now he travels just a few steps and turn 90° again. He continues his journey to reach point A. Now the angles formed at points B and C are 90° each, while the angle formed at A is almost 0°. The sum of the angles now almost adds up to 180°.

Therefore as the triangle shrinks into a line (i.e. point C comes closer and closer to point B, and ultimately merges), it loses its detecting power. We need a 2D object (like triangle) and not a 1D object (line) to measure the curvature of 2D surface. The same phenomenon happens in one higher dimension. A triangle is nothing but a tetrahedron whose apex/peak point has merged with the base. Hence a triangle is useless for measuring curvature of the universe. To understand the drastic implications, check:

“Is everything known about shape and size of the universe, and how it works, wrong?” [ #Link3 ].
Acknowledgement: Figures drawn by Shri Sanjay Prajapati (Lattice Design Lab., RRCAT).

Subhajit Waugh
RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology)
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Our universe is finite, curved & closed, and shaped like a (hyper) balloon.